Transport and Energy: The Challenge of Climate Change
Prize-Winners 2008
The International Transport Forum is awarding two prizes in 2008: a Young Researcher Award and a Prize for Mobility Management in Companies.
The Young Researcher Award
The Young Researcher Award 2008 is attributed to Helen HARWATT, Research Officer, Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, UK for her paper on:

"Reducing carbon emissions from personal road transport through the application of a tradable carbon permit scheme: empirical findings and policy implications from the UK".

The paper is based on a study in which a Tradable Carbon Permit scheme was designed to significantly reduce CO2 emissions from personal road transport in the UK. A series of interviews was conducted to investigate the behavioural response to the scheme, its impacts and its public acceptability. A system of fuel price increases, designed to achieve the same emissions target, was included in order to compare the key aspects of both policies. The paper submitted for the Young Researcher Award shows that, while fuel price increases and tradeable permit schemes are very similar in theory, the public's response revealed stark differences in terms of how these policies were perceived.

One key finding of Helen's paper is the differing ability of various instruments to achieve the carbon reduction targets and the clear superiority of trading permits over fuel increases.

Clearly, it is this policy dimension and high degree of relevance to the main theme of the 2008 Forum which impressed the members of the Jury: any policy to reduce emissions from the transport sector must take careful account of the issue of acceptability, and one of the main findings of Helen's study is that innovative policies are not necessarily poorly perceived.

Special Jury Prize for Innovative Thinking
The jury decided to attribute a Special Jury Prize to François GUSDORF, et Centre international de recherche sur l'environnement et le développement, et Stéphane HALLEGATE, Centre international de recherche sur l'environnement et le développement et Ecole nationale de la météorologie, Météo-France, Nogent-sur-Marne, France, for their paper, entitled:

"Time and space matter: how urban transitions create inequality"

which was drawn up in collaboration with Alain LAHELLEC from the Laboratoire de météorologie dynamique, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France.

A revised version of this article will be published in Global Environmental Change: F. Gusdorf, S. Hallegatte, A. Lahellec, Time and Space Matter: How Urban Transitions Create Inequality, forthcoming.

François Gusdord and Stéphane Hallegatte are both graduates of the renowned French Ecole polytechnique, where François Gusdorf majored in ecology and the environment and Stéphane Hallegatte in mathematics, mechanics and the environment. Since then, they have both gone on to earn doctorates: François Gusdorf in environmental economics and Stéphane Hallegatte in economics.

This highly original paper - particularly in terms of its theoretical basis - is based on the "NEDUM" model, which reproduces the evolution of a monocentric city in continuous time and captures the interactions between household moves, changes in flat sizes, rent levels and the density of the housing supply. It therefore permits both temporal and spatialized analyses of urban transitions.

When applied to climate policies, this model suggest that the implementation of a transportation tax may cause large welfare losses: such a tax will significantly increase inequalities if its implementation is not planned far enough in advance. Therefore, smooth and early implementation paths for climate policies should be preferred to delayed and aggressive action.

These too are messages with a policy dimension, and the jury for the Young Researcher Prize wanted above all reward, through its special honorary prize, the originality of the approach adopted in the paper and the innovative thinking shown by its authors, as well as their desire to "capture" dimensions of the analysis of environmental policy that are often not fully taken into account, in this case the spatial and temporal dimensions.
Overall Prize for Mobility Management in Companies
The Prize for Mobility Management in Companies has been attributed to ST Microelectronics, Grenoble, France. The ST Microelectronics company mobility plan has been developed in two phases: 2000-2005 and 2005-2010, with three objectives:
  • To reduce the environmental impact of employee commuting;
  • To avoid building new parking lots, despite the significant increase in the workforce;
  • To allow employees to come to work with less stress and under good conditions (quiet travel by public transit, and physical activity of bicycling).
The plan concerns all employees at the site, as well as trainees, temporary workers, and outside firms with facilities at the site. In 2000, there were 1900 persons participating in the mobility plan. In 2007, 2400 employees participated.

The plan was created in 2000, and was effectively launched in early 2001. The first phase ended in June 2005. The objective was to have 50% of workers use alternative forms of transport to come to work.

A second phase is now underway, covering the period 2005-2010. The objective here is 60%, i.e. a modal shift for an additional 10% of workers. Results include:
  • 54% of staff are now using alternative means;
  • No growth in number of parking places despite employee increase of 500 between 2000 and 2007;
  • 400 bike parking places on the site;
  • Nearly 900 public transit users and 350 cyclists;
  • CO2 savings:
    -- 2000, before launching: 300 tons of CO2
    -- 2006: 900 tons of CO2
    -- 2007: 1050 tons of CO2
Special Jury Prize for Mobility Management in a Large Company
◊  Stansted Airport Limited / BAA Stansted, UK
In 2002, BAA Stansted introduced its airport surface access strategy (ASAS) to serve an increased passenger flow from 15 million to 25 million passengers. The strategy covers all forms of transport accessing the airport, and was updated in 2005 with additional targets.

As part of this strategy, Stansted introduced an Employee Travel Plan in 2005, including all 12 000 airport employees in the 160 companies on airport.

Key Objectives of the Airport Surface Access Strategy and Stansted Site Travel Plan:
  • To increase the proportion of air passengers using public transport to 37% by 2010 and 40% beyond.
  • To decrease the number of staff who drive a private car to work alone to 80% by 2010.
Number of people involved:
  • In 2003, the airport was serving about 15 million passengers with 9 000 staff on airport.
  • In 2005, the airport was serving 21 million passengers per annum with 11 300 staff on airport.
  • In 2007, the airport was serving about 24 million passengers per annum with 12 000 staff on airport. There are a total of 160 separate companies on airport which are all included in the Stansted Travel Plan.
  • Stansted is committed to reducing CO2 emissions from fixed assets by 15% by 2010 compared to 1990 levels, and to cutting CO2 emissions from energy use at the airport by 30% by 2020.
Special Jury Prize for Mobility Management in a Small Company
◊  INFICON AG, Liechtenstein
INFICON is a manufacturer of equipment for measurement, analysis and control of gases. Their site in Balzers, Liechtenstein, with 225 employees, set the goal of reducing the energy consumption of the firm through travel activity from 50% to 40%. The corporate mobility management plan was launched in 1999.

Today, energy consumption from employee travel has decreased from 50% of total energy use from INFICON in 1999 to 35% of that total. CO2 emissions from employee travel are down, from 60% of total emissions in 1999, to 38%. CO2 output was reduced by 100 tonnes per year.
Results of the plan 1999 to 2008:
  • Motorised individual transport: decrease from 63% to 50%;
  • Public transport and car pooling: increase from 24% to 37%;
  • Cycling and walking is stable at 13%.
Special Jury Prize for Mobility Management in a Public Organisation
◊  London Borough of Lambeth, UK
Lambeth Council is an Inner London Borough employing approximately 5 300 staff. The Lambeth Workplace Travel Plan, launched in September 2005, was designed to:
  • Reduce the number of car journeys and promote the "sensible" use of cars;
  • Increase walking, cycling, public transport, car clubs and car sharing;
  • Encourage use of environmentally friendly vehicles where use of a vehicle is essential;
  • Set an example and promote good practice to other local employers and the community;
through a series of measures including a staff travel guide; promotion of cycling, including training for staff; improvement of shower and parking facilities; improved staff communications; and financial incentives for staff (bicycle user allowance scheme, bicycle purchase loan; environmentally friendly fleet measures).
Results 2005-2006:
  • 8% decrease in private car use;
  • Increase of 7% in pubic transport use (from 2004-2006);
  • Walking and cycling stable.
Special Jury Mentions for Mobility Management Initiatives
◊  BETTER BANKSIDE (Business Improvement District), UK
◊  DHL HUB Leipzig GMBH, Germany
◊  RABOBANK Groep, Netherlands
◊  THALES ALENIDA SPACE, France